To get the maximum score on an essay, it is important to understand and follow not only the structure of essay writing in English, avoiding gross errors. But you should have a clear strategy on how to weightily improve your essay by applying complex grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and punctuation correctly.


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The structure of the text may vary depending on the tasks and is determined by the author individually. Some authors choose the right structure, others not so much. As a result, some texts are easy to read: verbatim or diagonally, while others confuse the reader and plunge his or her mind into the chaos of misunderstanding.

For the sake of clarity, let's divide the structure of the text into several parts. In most cases, a text simply has to have:

  • An eye-catching headline
  • The main body, divided into paragraphs

Types of internal structure:

1. Logical (sequential) structure

The logical structure is characteristic of practical manuals, descriptions, articles, and so on. The peculiarity of this structure: each subsequent paragraph follows from the previous one or is related to it, directly or indirectly. This is very useful for creating texts in which there is an analysis of something followed by a conclusion.

For example, in this article, the previous paragraph describes where the logical structure is used and this one gives an example of how to use it. The next paragraph will talk about a different type of structure, logically complementing its two predecessors.

2. Pyramidal structure

The pyramidal structure is most common for news and press releases. It is based on the principle of an 'inverted pyramid', which requires the main information to be placed at the beginning of the story and then disclosed in detail later in the text.

The pyramidal structure allows the user to know at a glance what the article is about and, if necessary, to find out more details. If the user interrupts the reading, the main message will still be conveyed.

3. Commercial structure

Advertising and sales texts solve the task of selling and promoting. They involve triggering a user response: ordering a service, buying a product, making a call, registering, etc. To achieve the desired result, most commercial texts are created based on the AIDA marketing model.

This model has four steps that form the structure of the material. It is worth noting, however, that the structure may not always be logical. In this context, it is the result, not the aesthetics and consistency, that counts.

4. A chaotic structure

A chaotic structure is not used in texts and is usually the result of the inept manipulation of information by the author. At first glance, it looks like a textual jumble: elements of different types of structure are linked together and mixed haphazardly: analytics with a commercial bias, news with answers to questions, etc.

The chaotic structure confuses users and does not allow them to fully absorb the information. However, sometimes authors resort to exactly this type of approach to disorient readers. The purpose of this approach may be to sabotage, discredit, etc.

Paragraph structure

As mentioned above, the text is divided into paragraphs for readability. Paragraphs in turn can also have their structure, depending on the structure of the text, and be presented in the form of

  • Question/answer
  • Single sentences
  • A body of text
  • List
  • Quotation

The main rule of a paragraph is that it must make sense, even when separated from other sentences.

The structure of a text largely determines its continued success. In each case, the structure is chosen based on the objectives of the material. The main thing is that the reader should be able to get the information he or she needs in as accessible a way as possible, without getting bored or lost.

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